Peer-reviewed sources may be the most reliable, and can be found in university libraries and online databases. Paraphrased material should be carefully constructed. The writer must read the text thoroughly and understand it well. The precise meaning of the author must be represented in the paraphrased information. The referenced material should have been published within the last years.
Citations must be precise, as should references. Formatting issues include the title page, spacing, margins, headings, citations, and references University of Phoenix, Debunking bad science should be constant obligation of the science community, even if it takes time away from serious research or seems to be a losing battle. In the long run, good science drives out bad. As quoted in W. James McNerney Jr. If Mr. Bryan, with an open heart and mind, would drop all his books and all the disputations among the doctors and study first hand the simple archives of Nature, all his doubts would disappear; he would not lose his religion; he would become an evolutionist.
Written in response to an article a few days earlier in which William Jennings Bryan challenged the theory of evolution as lacking proof. Do experimental work but keep in mind that other investigators in the same field will consider your discoveries as less than one fourth as important as they seem to you. Do not enter upon research unless you can not help it.
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If through your thoughtful work you get a worthwhile idea, it will get you. The force of the conviction will compel you to forsake all and seek the relief of your mind in research work. As quoted in J. Doubtless the reasoning faculty, the mind, is the leading and characteristic attribute of the human race.
By the exercise of this, man arrives at the properties of the natural bodies. This is science, properly and emphatically so called. It is the science of pure mathematics; and in the high branches of this science lies the truly sublime of human acquisition. If any attainment deserves that epithet, it is the knowledge, which, from the mensuration of the minutest dust of the balance, proceeds on the rising scale of material bodies, everywhere weighing, everywhere measuring, everywhere detecting and explaining the laws of force and motion, penetrating into the secret principles which hold the universe of God together, and balancing worlds against worlds, and system against system.
But it is still to be remembered, that pure mathematics lie at the foundation of mechanical philosophy, and that it is ignorance only which can speak or think of that sublime science as useless research or barren speculation. During the time that [Karl] Landsteiner gave me an education in the field of imununology, I discovered that he and I were thinking about the serologic problem in very different ways. He would ask, What do these experiments force us to believe about the nature of the world? I would ask, What is the most.
I realized that medical and biological investigators were not attacking their problems the same way that theoretical physicists do, the way I had been in the habit of doing. Each generation has its few great mathematicians, and mathematics would not even notice the absence of the others. They are useful as teachers, and their research harms no one, but it is of no importance at all. A mathematician is great or he is nothing. In Douglas M. Campbell, John C. Higgins eds. Each species has evolved a special set of solutions to the general problems that all organisms must face.
By the fact of its existence, a species demonstrates that its members are able to carry out adequately a series of general functions. A few obvious examples will suffice. Organisms must remain functionally integrated. They must obtain materials from their environments, and process and release energy from these materials.
They must differentiate and grow, and they must reproduce. For systematics, or more precisely the neglect of systematics and the biological research dependent upon it, the costs are very high. In 'Edward O. Elaborate apparatus plays an important part in the science of to-day, but I sometimes wonder if we are not inclined to forget that the most important instrument in research must always be the mind of man.
Embryonic stem cell research is at the leading edge of a series of moral hazards. Bush, , Book 2, Endow the already established with money. Endow the woman who shows genius with time. In Phebe Mitchell Kendall ed. Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathematics to research and develop economical solutions to practical technical problems. Their work is the link between scientific discoveries and commercial applications. Engineers design products, the machinery to build those products, the factories in which those products are made, and the systems that ensure the quality of the product and efficiency of the workforce and manufacturing process.
They design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and transit systems. They develop and implement improved ways to extract, process, and use raw materials, such as petroleum and natural gas. They develop new materials that both improve the performance of products, and make implementing advances in technology possible. Their knowledge is applied to improving many things, including the quality of health care, the safety of food products, and the efficient operation of financial systems.
Guide to Information Sources in Engineering , 5. This definition has been revised and expanded over time in different issues of the Handbook. Every detection of what is false directs us towards what is true: every trial exhausts some tempting form of error. Every discovery opens a new field for investigation of facts, shows us the imperfection of our theories. It has justly been said, that the greater the circle of light, the greater the boundary of darkness by which it is surrounded.
Every hour a scientist spends trying to raise funds is an hour lost from important thought and research. Every scientist, through personal study and research, completes himself and his own humanity. Scientific research constitutes for you, as it does for many, the way for the personal encounter with truth, and perhaps the privileged place for the encounter itself with God, the Creator of heaven and earth.
Science shines forth in all its value as a good capable of motivating our existence, as a great experience of freedom for truth, as a fundamental work of service. Through research each scientist grows as a human being and helps others to do likewise. Address to the members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences 13 Nov Everyone knows that in research there are no final answers, only insights that allow one to formulate new questions.
Advance reprinting of chapter from book Max Planck, Scientific Autobiography , Facts, and facts alone, are the foundation of science When one devotes oneself to experimental research it is in order to augment the sum of known facts, or to discover their mutual relations. Precis elementaire de Physiologie , ii. Because lethal technologies seem to spring spontaneously from scientific discoveries, most people regard dangerous technology as no more than the bitter fruit of science, the real root of all evil.
In Edgar A. Bowring trans.
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Firm support has been found for the assertion that electricity occurs at thousands of points where we at most conjectured that it was present. Innumerable electrical particles oscillate in every flame and light source. We can in fact assume that every heat source is filled with electrons which will continue to oscillate ceaselessly and indefinitely. All these electrons leave their impression on the emitted rays. We can hope that experimental study of the radiation phenomena, which are exposed to various influences, but in particular to the effect of magnetism, will provide us with useful data concerning a new field, that of atomistic astronomy, as Lodge called it, populated with atoms and electrons instead of planets and worlds.
In Nobel Lectures: Physics , In The Works of H. Wells, vol. A Modern Utopia, ch. For we may remark generally of our mathematical researches, that these auxiliary quantities, these long and difficult calculations into which we are often drawn, are almost always proofs that we have not in the beginning considered the objects themselves so thoroughly and directly as their nature requires, since all is abridged and simplified, as soon as we place ourselves in a right point of view.
Formula for breakthroughs in research: Take young researchers, put them together in virtual seclusion, give them an unprecedented degree of freedom and turn up the pressure by fostering competitiveness. Frequently, I have been asked if an experiment I have planned is pure or applied science; to me it is more important to know if the experiment will yield new and probably enduring knowledge about nature. If it is likely to yield such knowledge, it is, in my opinion, good fundamental research; and this is more important than whether the motivation is purely aesthetic satisfaction on the part of the experimenter on the one hand or the improvement of the stability of a high-power transistor on the other.
Quoted in Richard R. In Daniel S. Greenberg, The Politics of Pure Science , 32, footnote. From the point of view of the pure morphologist the recapitulation theory is an instrument of research enabling him to reconstruct probable lines of descent; from the standpoint of the student of development and heredity the fact of recapitulation is a difficult problem whose solution would perhaps give the key to a true understanding of the real nature of heredity. Genetics as a whole is the great over-hyped science, and geneticists know that even if they don't say it. All that genetics really is is anatomy plus an enormous research group grant.
It's what anatomists did in the fifteenth century-looking at the heart and seeing how it worked. Now, we are doing the same with DNA. Governments, universities and industry must put their faith in science and tell their people to study what they want to study. Hardly a year passes that fails to find a new, oft-times exotic, research method or technique added to the armamentarium of political inquiry.
Anyone who cannot negotiate Chi squares, assess randomization, statistical significance, and standard deviations. James Gregor. He who sees things grow from the beginning will have the best view of them. Quoted in J. Lima-de-Faria ed. Her [Rosalind Franklin] devotion to research showed itself at its finest in the last months of her life. Although stricken with an illness which she knew would be fatal, she continued to work right up to the end. In his obituary for Rosalind Franklin, Nature , , , As given in Andrew Brown, J.
Bernal: The Sage of Science , Hieron asked Archimedes to discover, without damaging it, whether a certain crown or wreath was made of pure gold, or if the goldsmith had fraudulently alloyed it with some baser metal. While Archimedes was turning the problem over in his mind, he chanced to be in the bath house. There, as he was sitting in the bath, he noticed that the amount of water that was flowing over the top of it was equal in volume to that part of his body that was immersed.
He saw at once a way of solving the problem. He did not delay, but in his joy leaped out of the bath. Rushing naked through the streets towards his home, he cried out in a loud voice that he had found what he sought. Hitherto the principle of causality was universally accepted as an indispensable postulate of scientific research, but now we are told by some physicists that it must be thrown overboard. The fact that such an extraordinary opinion should be expressed in responsible scientific quarters is widely taken to be significant of the all-round unreliability of human knowledge.
This indeed is a very serious situation. Hopes are always accompanied by fears, and, in scientific research, the fears are liable to become dominant. How did Biot arrive at the partial differential equation? That would have been merely an instance of the way great mathematicians since the very beginnings of mathematical research have effortlessly maintained their superiority over ordinary mortals. The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics, , How did I discover saccharin? Well, it was partly by accident and partly by study. I had worked a long time on the compound radicals and substitution products of coal tar One evening I was so interested in my laboratory that I forgot about my supper till quite late, and then rushed off for a meal without stopping to wash my hands.
I sat down, broke a piece of bread, and put it to my lips. It tasted unspeakably sweet. I did not ask why it was so, probably because I thought it was some cake or sweetmeat. I rinsed my mouth with water, and dried my moustache with my napkin, when, to my surprise the napkin tasted sweeter than the bread. Then I was puzzled. I again raised my goblet, and, as fortune would have it, applied my mouth where my fingers had touched it before.
The water seemed syrup. It flashed on me that I was the cause of the singular universal sweetness, and I accordingly tasted the end of my thumb, and found it surpassed any confectionery I had ever eaten. I saw the whole thing at once. I had discovered some coal tar substance which out-sugared sugar. I dropped my dinner, and ran back to the laboratory. There, in my excitement, I tasted the contents of every beaker and evaporating dish on the table. Interview with American Analyst. Day after day, through infinite time, the scenery has changed in imperceptible features.
Let us smile at the illusion of eternity that appears in these things, and while so many temporary aspects fade away, let us listen to the ancient hymn, the spectacular song of the seas, that has saluted so many chains rising to the light. In Tectonics of Asia , , , trans. Albert V. Humanity certainly needs practical men, who get the most out of their work, and, without forgetting the general good, safeguard their own interests.
But humanity also needs dreamers, for whom the disinterested development of an enterprise is so captivating that it becomes impossible for them to devote their care to their own material profit. Without the slightest doubt, these dreamers do not deserve wealth, because they do not desire it. Even so, a well-organised society should assure to such workers the efficient means of accomplishing their task, in a life freed from material care and freely consecrated to research. Humanity, in the course of time, had to endure from the hands of science two great outrages against its naive self-love.
The first was when humanity discovered that our earth was not the center of the universe. The second occurred when biological research robbed man of his apparent superiority under special creation, and rebuked him with his descent from the animal kingdom, and his ineradicable animal nature. Stanley Hall trans. I am aware that those hateful persons called Original Researchers now maintain that Raleigh was not the man; but to them I turn a deaf ear. On who offered his coat for Queen Elizabeth I. I am busy just now again on Electro-Magnetism and think I have got hold of a good thing but can't say; it may be a weed instead of a fish that after all my labour I may at last pull up.
Letter to Richard Phillips, 23 Sep In Michael Faraday, Bence Jones ed. I am curious in a super-apish way. I like finding out things. That is the spirit in which nearly all productive scientific research is carried on. Letter from London 20 Apr , No. LaPorte ed. I am now convinced that we have recently become possessed of experimental evidence of the discrete or grained nature of matter, which the atomic hypothesis sought in vain for hundreds and thousands of years.
The isolation and counting of gaseous ions, on the one hand, which have crowned with success the long and brilliant researches of J. Thomson, and, on the other, agreement of the Brownian movement with the requirements of the kinetic hypothesis, established by many investigators and most conclusively by J. Perrin, justify the most cautious scientist in now speaking of the experimental proof of the atomic nature of matter, The atomic hypothesis is thus raised to the position of a scientifically well-founded theory, and can claim a place in a text-book intended for use as an introduction to the present state of our knowledge of General Chemistry.
In Grundriss der allgemeinen Chemie 4th ed.
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I am sorry that the distinguished leader of the Republican Party in the House states that he is not versed in botany and publicly admits that he does not know anything of these terms or what it is all about; but, Mr. Chairman, it is indeed a sad day for the people of this country when we must close the doors of the laboratories doing research work for the people of the United States.
Speaking 28 Dec as a member of the 72nd Congress, early in the Great Depression, in opposition to an attempt to eliminate a small amount from the agricultural appropriation bill. I assert that the cosmic religious experience is the strongest and the noblest driving force behind scientific research. I became expert at dissecting crayfish. At one point I had a crayfish claw mounted on an apparatus in such a way that I could operate the individual nerves.
I could get the several-jointed claw to reach down and pick up a pencil and wave it around. I am not sure that what I was doing had much scientific value, although I did learn which nerve fiber had to be excited to inhibit the effects of another fiber so that the claw would open. And it did get me interested in robotic instrumentation, something that I have now returned to. I am trying to build better micromanipulators for surgery and the like.
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I believe in intuition and inspiration. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. It is, strictly speaking, a real factor in scientific research. I believe quite simply that the small company of the future will be as much a research organization as it is a manufacturing company. I built the solenoid and with great expectations late one evening I pressed the switch which sent a current of 40 amperes through the coil.
Quoted from his memoirs in M.
I consider then, that generally speaking, to render a reason of an effect or Phaenomenon, is to deduce It from something else in Nature more known than it self, and that consequently there may be divers kinds of Degrees of Explication of the same thing. For although such Explications be the most satisfactory to the Understanding, wherein 'tis shewn how the effect is produc'd by the more primitive and Catholick Affection of Matter, namely bulk, shape and motion, yet are not these Explications to be despis'd, wherein particular effects are deduc'd from the more obvious and familiar Qualities or States of Bodies, For in the search after Natural Causes, every new measure of Discovery does both instinct and gratifie the Understanding.
I contend that the continued racial classification of Homo sapiens represents an outmoded approach to the general problem of differentiation within a species. In other words, I reject a racial classification of humans for the same reasons that I prefer not to divide into subspecies the prodigiously variable West Indian land snails that form the subject of my own research.
I could never have known so well how paltry men are, and how little they care for really high aims, if I had not tested them by my scientific researches. Thus I saw that most men only care for science so far as they get a living by it, and that they worship even error when it affords them a subsistence. Wed 12 Oct Johann Peter Eckermann, Conversations with Goethe , ed. Moorhead and trans. Oxenford , I do believe that a scientist is a freelance personality. I do believe that science, for me, is very close to art. I do not think we can impose limits on research. Although in recent times we have progressed from chance and hit-or-miss methods to consciously directed research, we still cannot know in advance what the results may be.
It would be regressive and dangerous to trammel the free search for new forms of truth. I do not want to label myself a crystallographer as against a physicist and think indeed that though my research is concerned with crystals it is the physical side of it which attracts me. I doubt that Fleming could have obtained a grant for the discovery of penicillin on that basis [a requirement for highly detailed research plans] because he could not have said, 'I propose to have an accident in a culture so that it will be spoiled by a mould falling on it, and I propose to recognize the possibility of extracting an antibiotic from this mould.
In Ken G. Smith ed. I feel very strongly indeed that a Cambridge education for our scientists should include some contact with the humanistic side. The gift of expression is important to them as scientists; the best research is wasted when it is extremely difficult to discover what it is all about It is even more important when scientists are called upon to play their part in the world of affairs, as is happening to an increasing extent. I first met J.
Robert Oppenheimer on October 8, , at Berkeley, Calif. There we discussed the theoretical research studies he was engaged in with respect to the physics of the bomb. Our discussions confirmed my previous belief that we should bring all of the widely scattered theoretical work together. He expressed complete agreement, and it was then that the idea of the prompt establishment of a Los Alamos was conceived.
Such occasions often proved fruitful, even though or perhaps, because the primary purpose of the walk was relaxation and not research. I graduated from college still knowing nothing of original research in science. Michael Bishop. I had observed that there were different lines exhibited in the spectra of different metals when ignited in the voltaic arc; and if I had had any reasonable amount of wit I ought to have seen the converse, viz.
Words as in original text, occured and Kirchoff are sic. I happen to be a kind of monkey. I have a monkeylike curiosity that makes me want to feel, smell, and taste things which arouse my curiosity, then to take them apart. It was born in me. Not everybody is like that, but a scientific researchist should be. Any fool can show me an experiment is useless.
I want a man who will try it and get something out of it. I have always attached great importance to the manner in which an experiment is set up and conducted In Charles Coulston Gillespie ed. I have always felt that I understood a phenomenon only to the extent that I could visualise it. Much of the charm organic chemical research has for me derives from structural formulae. When reading chemical journals, I look for formulae first.
I have always tried to fit knowledge that I acquired into my understanding of the world. From interview with Neil A. I have been trying to point out that in our lives chance may have an astonishing influence and, if I may offer advice to the young laboratory worker, it would be this—never neglect an extraordinary appearance or happening.
It may be—usually is, in fact—a false alarm that leads to nothing, but may on the other hand be the clue provided by fate to lead you to some important advance. Lecture at Harvard University. Quoted in Joseph Sambrook, David W. Russell, Molecular Cloning , Vol. I have little patience with scientists who take a board of wood, look for its thinnest part and drill a great number of holes where drilling is easy.
Integrate Brief Quotations from Outside Sources
I do not think I could work in company, or think aloud, or explain my thoughts at the time. Letter to C. Ransteed, 16 Dec Pearce Williams ed. I have often had cause to feel that my hands are cleverer than my head. That is a crude way of characterizing the dialectics of experimentation. When it is going well, it is like a quiet conversation with Nature. One asks a question and gets an answer, then one asks the next question and gets the next answer.
An experiment is a device to make Nature speak intelligibly. After that, one only has to listen.
Nobel Lecture 12 Dec I have to keep going, as there are always people on my track. I have to publish my present work as rapidly as possible in order to keep in the race. The best sprinters in this road of investigation are Becquerel and the Curies Letter to his mother 5 Jan Quoted in A. Lord Rutherford , In Laurie M. Brown, Abraham Pais and A. Pippard, Twentieth Century Physics , I have tried to show why I believe that the biologist is the most romantic figure on earth at the present day.
At first sight he seems to be just a poor little scrubby underpaid man, groping blindly amid the mazes of the ultra-microscopic, engaging in bitter and lifelong quarrels over the nephridia of flatworms, waking perhaps one morning to find that someone whose name he has never heard has demolished by a few crucial experiments the work which he had hoped would render him immortal.
I have yet to see any problem, however complicated, which, when you looked at it in the right way, did not become still more complicated. Quoted in William Thorpe, 'Reduction v. Organicism,' New Scientist , 25 Sep , 43 , No 66, As cited in Carl C. So seven years went by. If it doesn't fit in, then I find some way of fitting it in. I knew, however, that it would cost ten times what I had available in order to build a molecular beam machine. I decided to follow a byway, rather than the highway. It is a procedure I have subsequently recommended to beginning scientists in this country, where research strategy is best modelled on that used by Wolfe at the Plains of Abraham.
British General James Wolfe defeated the French defending Quebec in after scaling a cliff for a surprise attack. I learned the inebriation of research, the practice of rigor, and the art of disappointment. I learned what research was all about as a research student [with] Stoppani Max Perutz, and Fred Sanger I like to do high-risk and high-payoff kind of research. And I had a gut feeling that MIT was a cool place to be with people who are fearless.
I looked for it [heavy hydrogen, deuterium] because I thought it should exist. In I Want to be a Mathematician: an Automathography , I often say that research is a way of finding out what you are going to do when you can't keep on doing what you are doing now. I ought to say that one of our first joint researches, so far as publication was concerned, had the peculiar effect of freeing me forever from the wiles of college football, and if that is a defect, make the most of it!
Noyes and I conceived an idea on sodium aluminate solutions on the morning of the day of a Princeton-Harvard game as I recall it that we had planned to attend. It looked as though a few days' work on freezing-point determinations and electrical conductivities would answer the question. We could not wait, so we gave up the game and stayed in the laboratory. Our experiments were successful. Chase, S. The social context of critical care clinical judgment.
Heart and Lung, 24, One of your jobs as a writer is to guide your reader through your text. Often both the signal and the assertion appear in a single introductory statement, as in the example below. Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement. Ross , in her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from [signal], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent determined the meaning of motherhood [assertion].
Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion]. Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your paper and enclose them in double quotation marks:. Begin longer quotations for instance, in the APA system, 40 words or more on a new line and indent the entire quotation i.
Unsucessful Paraphrases page. More than 3 lines of poetry should be indented. As with any extended indented quotation, do not use quotation marks unless you need to indicate a quotation within your quotation. With short quotations, place citations outside of closing quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation period, question mark, comma, semi-colon, colon :.
Menand acknowledges that H. Place outside of closing quotation marks if the entire sentence containing the quotation is a question or exclamation:. According to Hertzberg , Dahl gives the U.
Use ellipsis points. Within quotations, use square brackets [ ] not parentheses to add your own clarification, comment, or correction. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 4th ed. Bazerman, C. The informed writer: Using sources in the disciplines 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Leki, I. Academic writing: Exploring processes and strategies 2nd ed. New York: St.
Spatt, B. Writing from sources 5th ed. The Writing Center has handouts explaining how to use many of the standard documentation systems. You may look at our general Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may check out any of the following specific Web pages. This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.
Incorporating Interview Data. Additional Resources for Grants and Proposal Writing. Writing Personal Statements for Ph. Resources for Proposal Writers. Planning and Writing Research Papers. Writing Annotated Bibliographies. Creating Poster Presentations. Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper. Writing a Review of Literature. Writing an Effective Blog Post.
U niversity of W isconsin —Madison. How to avoid plagiarism When using sources in your papers, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what must be documented. Information and Ideas Even if you use your own words, if you obtained the information or ideas you are presenting from a source, you must document the source. Common Knowledge?